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1. Introduction
  1. Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - Journal - Elsevier
  2. Mutagenesis (molecular biology technique)
  3. Advances in Mutagenesis Research
  4. Introduction

Here the UV-A irradiation was used in order to just enhance the biological response not because it is significant for space missions and observe if any synergistic response would occur in the presence of cosmic radiation. The equipment allowed for the study of the DNA repair and mutagenesis of E.

We have also characterized the space weather conditions during the experiment. A specific hardware was designed owing to attend the irradiated. Each slot is submitted to the environmental cosmic experiment, the specifications and flight restrictions: weight, radiation and induced UV-A radiation generated by an array dimensions, biological barriers protocols and temperature safety of 18 UV-A nm LEDs.

Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - Journal - Elsevier

The bacterial samples were isolated in slots wile being biological experiments presented several advantages: it promotes a closer contact of the biological material with the irradiation sources improving the dosimetric model; the geometry of each radiation slot as a small rectangular hermetically closed box resulted in a relatively well distributed dose to the biological material inside them; UV-A LED generates nm irradiation with 10 nm bandwidth, at full spectrum half width.

They are more resistant to vibration than conventional lamps. Unlike the previous experiments, the CIM made it possible to irradiate the bacterial strains with a predetermined dose of radiation while in the microgravity of space. Thus, it was possible to carry out both irradiation and cell repair in the same environment without having to manipulate the biological material in the confined environment of the spacecraft.

Therefore, it is a new experimental process. The mass was limited to 3 kg for transport aboard the Soyuz to the ISS and to 1.

The integrity of the characteristics and the functioning of the CIM system were checked to comply with the expected pressure, temperature, and humidity constraints of the Soyuz and ISS environments. Several Environmental Compatibility requirements had to be met: touch temperature exposed parts; off-gassing a quantitative analysis of gases that may be generated by non-metallic materials ; biological barriers the guarantee of containment of biological material ; external characteristics no sharp edges, corners and shatterable materials are allowed, in order to avoid any injury during microgravity handlings.

The fan blades are protected by 3 mm grid holes ; and ergonomy protection against erroneous operations. The total CIM hardware is divided into 4 different modules, as shown in Fig.

Mutagenesis (molecular biology technique)

The LEDs are distributed over its upper and bottom halves Fig. Therefore, extra thermal power was generated while a total of 72 LEDs were switched on during the experiment. This process was responsible for a temperature increase of the equipment. Convective cooling was generated by two 60 mm ball bearing type fans one redundant.

This module is attached to the Electronic Module by a faced external connector Fig. All relevant experiment data is recorded in it. Time resolution of acquisition data was 1 minute. This data was recovered on Earth at the mission's end. To meet this requirement, the aluminum case alloy AL T6 , used in the EM was deeply anodized in order to increase its heat emissivity to a depth of not less than 0. UV: UV-A dosimetry was conducted by measuring the spatial distribution of light intensity inside all irradiation slots, since the bacteria will occupy this volume randomly during the experiment.

The irradiation conditioning was simulated by filling up the 1 mL slot with the same saline solution used in the flight experiment. Parallel planes within the slot composed by the array of 9 LEDs at the upper surface and the same at the bottom of the Irradiator Module were analyzed. UV-A spatial distribution was obtained experimentally by screening the light intensity horizontally and vertically inside the slot, using a photocell covered by a mask with a 1 mm orifice diameter at its center.

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Vertical resolution of each step of measurement was 0. Figure 4 depicts the configuration of the isopleths of irradiance at 4 different distances from the LED array upper or bottom part of the irradiation slot. Taking into account both surfaces with 9 LEDs, we obtain each plane's irradiance distribution. This procedure made it possible to compile a complete description of the UV-A intensity distribution inside the irradiation slot.

The statistical analysis of the results is presented in Fig.

The median value of this collection is 4. These layers present partial contribution for one slot surface with 9 LEDs. The median value of this collection represents a total slot Irradiance of 4.

After this automatic test, the UV Irradiation was begun by an astronaut command through an EM front panel pushbutton. The IM with FM attached was mm in length, mm wide, and 65 mm high, weighing kg. The EM with MM was mm x mm and mm l,w,h , weighing 1. The overall CIM launch dimensions were mm x mm x mm l x w x h and the total mass was 3.


Advances in Mutagenesis Research

The return mass was 1. During the irradiation period, the maximum CIM consumption was After the irradiation period, the equipment was shut down and disabled. The biological material employed in the experiment was composed of bacterial strains derived from E. The transport was conducted under room temperature and bacterial strains were fixed in Millipore filters of 47 mm diameter, enclosed in a sterilized plastic holder.

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Resources Databases Meetings Publications Multimedia. All rights reserved. Their study demonstrates the existence of long-distance mutagenesis of ionizing radiation in plants, which sheds some new light on the plant mutagenesis of low-energy-ions. In this study, when the distal primary roots of Arabidopsis seedlings were radiated with 10Gy of alpha-particles, an increase of homologous recombination frequency and up-regulated expression of AtRAD54 gene were observed in the aerial plants, which were not exposed to ion beam radiation.

The non-targeted aerial plants also showed an elevated level of DNA strand breaks. The second study was on Formaldehyde FA , an environmental genotoxical factor that has been widely used in making many commercial products such as carpeting, drapery and garments.